Jump to: Glorious Revolution 1688 – French Revolution 1789 – Parliament Crisis 1909-11 References are to UK events and material unless otherwise stated.

Year

UK Events

Legislation and Treaties, Cases; Reports;

Ireland, European, Foreign and International

2017

Elections for NI Assembly

 Miller Judgment

Wales Act

Election of Donald Trump

2016

23 June Referendum on EU Membership

Elections for NI Assembly; Scottish Parliament; Welsh Assembly

Election of Donald Trump

2015

Election: Cons. majority govt, Cameron becomes PM. Promises: repeal of HRA; new Bill of Rights; EU referendum

 UKSC: Evans (Prince Charles’ letters);

SG (Housing benefit);

Pham.

Recall of MPs Act

House of Commons Commission Act

Counter-terrorism and Security Act

Criminal Justice and Courts Act

Ireland: Referendum on same-sex marriage

2014

Stormont House Agreement

Scottish independence referendum

Smith Commission

 UKSC: HS2 case;

Agricultural Sector (Wales) Bill – Reference by the Attorney General for England  ([2014] UKSC 43);

R (Nicklinson) v. Ministry of Justice ([2014] UKSC 38)

Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act 2014;  Wales Act

 CJEU: Opinion 2/13;

AMS;

Digital Rights Ireland;

Glatzel, Wolfgang v. Freistaat Bayern (Case C-356/12)

ECtHR: Al-Nashiri; SAS v France

US Senate: Torture Report

Hong Kong: Umbrella revolution

Russia annexes Crimea

2013

 Parliament debates SyriaHaass O’Sullivan talks’Petition of concern’ used to block censure of DUP minister  Jobseekers’ ActMcKay ReportDefamation ActRoyal charter on self regulation of the press Irl: Smithwick TribunalPortuguese Tr Cons invalidates part of budgetUSSC decides Shelby County v Holder; US v Windsor

2012

Referendums on local mayors

Vote on Jeremy Hunt

Lord Neuberger becomes Pres UKSC

Grayling becomes LC/MoJ

AG Larkin (NI) and ‘scandalising the courts’

Scotland Act

Welfare Reform Act

Protection of Freedoms Act

Alvi case

Bill of Rights Commission reports

Hillsborough Panel

USSC considers health care reforms

Irl: Mahon Tribunal

Irl: Referendum on EU Fiscal Compact

Irl: Constitutional Convention

Pakistan SC removes PM from office

Egypt: Constitutional court dissolves Parliament; Morsi elected as President

Ger FCC: Euro Stability Mechanism

ECtHR: El-Masri

Hollande Fr President 2012-

CJEU: Pringle case

2011

Elections in Scotland, Wales and NI. SNP become majority party.

Welsh Referendum on legislative powers under GWA 2006

UK wide Referendum on voting system

Cabinet Manual

Leveson inquiry begins work

Commission on a Bill of Rights

Draft House of Lords Reform Bill

AXA case

Terrorism Prevention and Investigation Measures

Fixed Term Parliaments Act

Localism Act

European Union Act

Parliamentary Voting system and Constituency Act

Ger FCC: Euro Rescue package

ECtHR: Lautsi

Egyptian Revolution

Libyan civil war

South Sudan comes into being

IESC: Denham becomes first female CJ

Irl: Moriarty Tribunal 

Ethiopia/Somalia war 2006-09

Kenny Taoiseach 2011-

2010

Hillsborough Agreement; Devolution of policing and justice to NI.

May General election – Con Lib Dem coalition; Cameron becomes PM

June Budget

Kenneth Clarke becomes LC/MoJ

Chaytor case

Cadder case

Constitutional Reform and Governance Act

Equality Act

Saville Inquiry;

Claudy Report

Dec- Arab Spring begins in Tunisia

Debt crisis in some Eurozone countries

Irish Bailout

Ger FCC: Hartz IV

IESC: Meadows

USSC: Citizens United

2009

MPs’ expenses scandal.

Supreme Court of the UK  begins work; Lord Philips becomes first President of the SC

Chilcot inquiry

Constitutional Reform and Governance Bill.

Parliamentary Standards Act

Political Parties and Elections Act

Northern Ireland Act 2009

Report on Reform of the House of Commons

Second Irish Referendum on Lisbon

EU Reform Treaty (Lisbon) comes into force

European Parliament elections

Irl: Murphy Report; Ryan Report

Pakistan SC declares state of emergency unconstitutional

2008

Robinson (DUP) and McGuinness (SF) appointed to OFMDFM

Northern Rock

Lord Phillips becomes Senior Law Lord

House of Lords rejects 42 day arrest

NIHRC advice on a Bill of Rights

Bancoult case

Corner House

Gentle case

Draft Constitutional Renewal Bill

Counter-Terrorism Act

UK Bill of Rights debate; NIHRC presents bill of rights advice to SOS NI

P case

E case

Ireland rejects EU Reform Treaty (Lisbon)

Irl: Bertie Ahern resigns as Taoiseach

Irl: Morris tribunal

Can Gov Gen prorogues Parliament

Fr Const amended to provide for a ‘question prioritaire’ to FR CC

Cowan Taoiseach 2008-2011

2007

Elections in Scotland, Wales and NI

Paisley (DUP) and McGuinness (SF) appointed  to OFMDFM in NI

SNP leader Salmond  is First Minister of Scotland; SNP proposes referendum

Ministry of Justice replaces DCA

Gordon Brown becomes PM

Straw becomes Lord Chancellor

Al Skeini

Huang

Governance of Britain paper

Justice and Security (NI) Act

EU considers treaty to reform the Union

Romania and Bulgaria join EU

Irl: McEntee report on investigations into Dublin and Monaghan bombings

Sarkozy Fr President 2007-2012

2006

St Andrews Agreement

Jones case

Terrorism Act

Equality Act;

Govt. Wales Act;

Northern Ireland (St. Andrews Agreement) Act

Legislative and Regulatory Reform Act

Electoral Administration Act

Ger FCC: Hijack law case

Hung CC: Budget Act case

IESC: A v Governor Arbour Hill

Irl: Barr Tribunal

2005

General election. Blair re-elected

Second Blunkett resignation

IRA decommissions its arms according to IICD

Nov 9. Govt defeated over 90 day arrest powers in Terrorism Bill

Inquiries Act;

Prevention of Terrorism Act

Constitutional Reform Act

Jackson case

Quintavalle case

France and Netherlands reject Constitutional Treaty

US: Bush nominates Roberts to USSC CJ

ECtHR decides Hirst v UK

Merkel Chancellor Germany 2005-

2004

First Blunkett resignation

Baroness Hale become first female Law Lord

Richards Commission on Welsh devolution

Referendum on North East devolution

First Belmarsh case, A v. Home Office

Ghaidan case

Butler Report

Hunting Act (Bill passed by Parliament Act)

Civil Contingencies Act

Gender Recognition Act

Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants) Act

Justice (NI) Act

EU enlargement as ten countries join

Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe signed

Afghan Constitution

Iraq Constitution

Ukraine: Orange Revolution 2004-5

`2003

Vote on Iraq intervention

Cook resigns

Elections in Scotland and Wales and NI.

David Kelly suicide.

Department for Constitutional Affairs DCA created

Gov announces plans to abolish Lord Chancellor and introduce Supreme Court

Lord Falconer Lord Chancellor 2003-2007

Hutton Inquiry.

Police (Northern Ireland) Act

Nice Treaty comes into force

Invasion of Iraq.

Ireland incorporates ECHR via the ECHR Incorporation Act

Cambodia Court

Georgia: Rose Revolution

ECtHR: Refah Partisi

2002

Stormontgate

NI Assembly suspended (2002-7)

Morris resignation

IRA statement of apology

Robinson case

Thoburn case

Justice (Northern Ireland) Act

Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates Act)

Morrow and Campbell’s application for judicial review

IESC: Ardagh case

Euro

Second Irish Referendum on Nice

Special Court for Sierra Leone

2001

General Election

Second Mandelson resignation

NI Assembly twice suspended for a day

First act of decommissioning by IRA

Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act

R v A

Daly case

UK ratifies Minority Languages Charter

De Brun’s application for judicial reivew

Irl: Standards in Public Office Act

Treaty of Nice (EU) signed

9/11

Invasion of Afghanistan

Irish referendum on Nice

IESC: Sinnott; TD

Formation of Caribbean Ct of Justice

Ghana National Reconciliation Commission

2000

NI Assembly suspended for 4 months

Livingstone elected London mayor

Lord Bingham becomes Senior Law Lord

Lord Woolf is LCJ 2000-2005

Freedom of Information Act

Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act

Northern Ireland Act

Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act

Terrorism Act

Human Rights Act enters into force

Sexual Offences Amendment Act (Bill passed by Parliament Act)

EU: Charter of Fundamental Rights

Sierra Leone intervention

US Presidential election; Bush wins after USSC decision in Bush v Gore

SACC: Grootboom

Serbia: End of Milosevic

1999

Elections in Scotland and Wales

House of Lords Act

White Paper on Modernising Government

Next Steps Report

Wakeham Report on the House of Lords

Greater London Authority Act

European Parliamentary Elections (Bill passed by Parliament Act)

Pinochet case

Simms case

MacPherson Report on Stephen Lawrence murder

Kosovo intervention

Articles 2 and 3 of the Irish constitution amended

European Commission resigns

Irl: O’Flaherty (IESC) and Kelly (IEHC) resign

Irl: Lindsay report

Second Liberian Civil War 1999-2003

1998

First Mandelson resignation

First election of NI Assembly

Good Friday / Belfast Agreement

Human Rights Act

Scotland Act

Northern Ireland Act

Govt. Wales Act

Jenkins Report on the voting system

UK ratifies Framework Convention on National Minorities; Additional Protocols I and II  to Geneva Convention

Police (NI) Act

Congo War / Great War of Africa 1998-2003

SCC: Secession reference

Hung CC: 2nd Abortion case

Hung CC: Social security case

Schroeder Chancellor Ger 1998-2005

1997

General Election; New Labour comes to power

Tony Blair becomes PM (Lab)

Independence for Bank of England

IRA reinstates ceasefire

Lord Irvine LC 1997-2003

 Resolutions on accountability (HC and HL)

Treaty of Amsterdam (EU) signed

Ahern Taoiseach 1997-2008

1996

Government survives vote on Scott Report by 320-319

Lord Woolf is MR 1996-2000

Scott Report into Arms to Iraq and Matrix Churchill

Mitchell report on decommissioning (NI)

NI (Entry to Neogotiations) Act

SACC: Certification process

Constitution of South Africa

1995

Home Secretary Howard denies responsibility for operational decisions in Prisons Service.

IRA ends ceasefire (Canary Wharf)

Lord Steyn appointed a Law Lord (1995-2005)

Lord Hoffmann appointed Law Lord

First Report of the Committee on Standards in Public Life

Fire Brigades Union case

Framework Document; Joint communique (UK, Irl)

Srebrenica Massacre

World Trade Organisation (WTO) replaces GATT

COE: National Minorities Convention

Irl: Ethics in Public Office Act

Austria, Finland, Sweden join EU

Schengen Agreement

IESC: Abortion Information case

IESC: McKenna

Irl: Divorce referendum succeeds

SA: Truth and Reconciliation commission established

Chirac Fr President 1995-2007

1994

Cash for questions scandal

Privatisation of British Rail begins

Major creates Committee on Standards in Public Life, initially under Lord Nolan

Paramilitary ceasefires in NI

Intelligence Services Act

Rwandan Genocide; ICTR

Irl: Beef Tribunal

Irl: Whelehan resigns from HC; Reynolds resigns as Toiseach

Irl: Section 31 ban lifted

Clinton appoints Senator Mitchell as an envoy to NI

Democratic elections in South Africa; South Africa rejoins Commonwealth

Ger FCC: Soldiers serving abroad case; Ger FCC: Brunner

Hung CC: Abortion case

Palestinian Authority

Bruton Taoiseach 1994-97

1993

Conservative policy of “Back to Basics”

Labour publishes proposals for constitutional reform

Major calls for and wins vote of confidence over Maastricht  (23 july)

Downing Street Declaration (NI)

M v. Home Office (Ministers can be held in contempt of court)

Ex p Bentley

Ex p Rees Mogg

Ger FCC: Abortion

ICTY

South African Interim Constitution

Velvet divorce (Czech Republic and Slovakia)

1992

General election; Cons. Re-elected

Black Wednesday – UK withdraws from European Exchange Rate mechanism

R. v. Henderson – Matrix Churchill prosecution (Arms to Iraq)

Bosnian War 1992-95

Treaty on European Union (Maastricht treaty) signed

IESC: X case

Irl: Abortion referendums

Fr CC: Maastricht decisions

USSC: Casey

Mani pulite (clean hands)  investigations in Italy

Israeli Basic Law on Human Dignity and Liberty

Hung CC: Retroactivity case

Reynolds Taoiseach 1992-94

1991

Liberty publishes ‘A People’s Charter’

Citizen’s Charter

War Crimes Act 1991 (Bill passed by Parliament Act)

Ex p Brind (status of ECHR)

US and allied troops expel Iraq from Kuwait

US: Thomas nomination

End of USSR

1990

Thatcher resigns; Major becomes PM (Con)

Factortame case

National Health Service and Community Care Act

Hung CC: Death penalty case

German Reunification

Iraq invades Kuwait

NZ: Bill of Right Act

OSCE: Copenhagen Concluding Statement

OSCE: Charter of Paris

McGimspey v. Ireland, Irish Supreme Court

Mandela released

Namibian independence

1989

Security Services Act

Official Secrets Act

Fall of the Berlin Wall.

OSCE: Vienna Concluding Document

UN: CRC (Child)

First Liberian Civil War 1989-96

Tiananmen Square

1988

Poll tax controversy

Liberal Party merges with Social Democrats to form Liberal Democrats

Currie resignation

Butler Sloss becomes first female CA judge

Broadcasting ban

Next Steps report

Merchant Shipping Act

1987

General election. Thatcher re-elected PM. (Con)

Lord Mackay LC 1987-1997

Ex p Northumbria Police Authority

SACHR Report on discrimination

COE Convention for the Prevention of Torture

IESC: Crotty

US: Bork Nomination

Haughey Taoiseach 1987-92

1986

Greater London Council abolished

Westland affair; Heseltine resigns

Shops (Gov) Bill defeated on second reading

Single European Act (Treaty)

Ger FCC: Solange II

Portugal and Spain join EEC

Fr: Cohabitation

SCC: R v Oakes (proportionality test)

ICJ: Nicaragua

Rose Bird (CJ, Cal SC)loses reconfirmation vote

Philippines: People Power

ECtHR: Lingens v Austria

1985

Anglo-Irish Agreement

Representation of the People Act

Interception of Communications Act

Irl: Kerry babies tribunal

Canada: Human Rights Act

Gorbachev (USSR)

1984

Miners’ Strike 1984-5

GCHQ case

UN adopts CAT (Torture)

UN Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace 1984, UN A/RES/39/11

1983

General Election. Thatcher re-elected PM. (Con)

Secretary of State for NI Prior avoids resignation over Maze breakout

Thatcher makes Whitelaw a hereditary peer

Irl: Rights of the Unborn referendum

Ger FCC: Pershing and Cruise missiles

South African Constitution

Ger: Kohl manipulates constructive vote of no confidence to call election

1982

NI Assembly 1982-86

Lord Carrington resigns as Foreign secretary after Argentine invades Falklands

Canada Act

Northern Ireland Act

Falklands war.

Canada Constitution Act and Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Israeli invasion of Lebanon

Kohl Chancellor W Ger/Ger 1982-1998

Haughey Taiseach Mar-Dec 1982; GUBU scandal; Phone tap scandal;

Fitzgerald Taoiseach 1982-1987

1981

Hunger Strike

Riots in Brixton and elsewhere

Supreme Court Act

African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights

Military coup in Spain fails

Canadian Supreme Court rules that constitutional conventions cannot be legally enforced (Patriation reference)

US: O’Connor becomes first woman on SC

Greece joins EEC

Fitzgerald Taoiseach 1981-2

Poland: Solidarity Strike

Mitterand Fr President 1981-1995

1980

Iran Iraq war 1980 – 1988

1979

Devolution referenda in Scotland and Wales

General Election following a vote of no confidence (Callaghan lost by one vote)

Thatcher becomes PM. (Con)

Select committees reformed

Lord Hailsham LC 1979-1987

UN adopts CEDAW

Ger FCC: School prayer case

Direct elections to European Parliament

Iran Hostage crisis 1979-1981

Haughey Taoiseach 1979-81

1978

HL Select Committee on a Bill of Rights (App VII)

“Winter of discontent” strikes

Spanish constitution

USSC: Bakke

Vietnam invades Kampuchea

Uganda-Tanzania war

1977

Lord Scarman appointed Law Lord 1977-86

SACHR report on a bill of rights

Additional Protocols to the Geneva conventions

Lynch Taoiseach 1977-9

1976

Callaghan becomes PM (Lab)

Government calls in the IMF

SACHR discussion paper on a Bill of Rights

Race Relations Act

Fair Employment (NI) Act

Ger FCC: Abortion case

Indian SC: Gandhi case

Irl: O Dalaigh resignation

Irl: Sallins Mail Robbery

1975

Referendum on EEC membership;

Ministerial and other Salaries Act

Sex Discrimination Act

Gardiner Report

Death of Gen. Franco (Spain)

Governor General dismisses Prime Minister of Australia

Ger FCC: Abortion case

Ger FCC: Interdenominational schools case

Fr CdeC: Cafe Jacques Vabre

Fr CC: Abortion case

Indonesia invades East Timor

ICJ: Western Sahara

1974

General election: Feb; Hung Parliament; Lab wins more seats though fewer votes; Wilson (Lab) becomes PM.

Ulster Workers Council strike brings down NI power sharing government in May

General Election: Oct; Wilson becomes PM (Lab)

Scarman’s Hamlyn lectures ‘English Law-The New Dimension’

NI Act

USSC: US v Nixon

Nixon resigns

Reform of power to refer bills to Fr CC

Giscard-d’Estaing Fr President 1974-81

Schmidt Chancellor W Ger 1974-1982

1973

UK (along with Denmark and Ireland) joins EEC

Kilbrandon Report (Royal Commission on the Constitution)

NI Constitutional Proposals

NI Constitution Act

Sunningdale Agreement

Oil Crisis

US: War Powers Act

USSC: Roe v Wade

IESC: McGee

Indian SC: Fundamental Features case

Yom Kippur War

Chilean coup

L Cosgrave Taoiseach 1973-7

1972

Bloody Sunday

Stormont prorogued

European Communities Act

Widgery report on Bloody Sunday

R (Hume) v Londonderry Magistrates

Parker Report

Scarman Report

NI Temporary Provisions Act

Diplock Report

The Future of NI

IESC: Byrne v Ireland

Referendum removes the “special position” of the Catholic Church from the Irish Constitution

Nixon nominates Rehnquist to USSC 1972-2005

Henchy appointed to IESC 1972-1988

Nixon visits China

1971

Faulkner PM of NI, 1971-2

Internment in NI

 The Housing Executive Act (Northern Ireland) 1971A Record of Constructive Change,Compton Report

Fr CC: Liberty of Association

Ger FCC: Mephisto case

Rawls publishes A Theory of Justice

India: East Pakistan intervention

ICJ: Namibia

1970

General election: Edward Heath becomes PM (Con)

Lord Hailsham LC 1970-74

Equal Pay Act

 Criminal Justice (Temporary Provisions) Act (Northern Ireland) 1970

Prevention of Incitement to Hatred Act (Northern Ireland) 1970

UN Resolution 2625 Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations 1970, UN

ECJ: Internationale Handelsgesellschaft

ICJ: Barcelona Traction

Irl: Arms Crisis

1969

The “Troubles”

Chichester-Clark PM of NI, 1969-71

Community Relations Act (Northern Ireland)

Cameron Report on Disturbances in NI

Parliamentary Commissioner Act (Northern Ireland) 1969

Hunt Report on Police in NI

Commissioner for Complaints Act (Northern Ireland) 1969

Fr: De Gaulle resigns after losing referendum

Pompidou Fr President 1969-74

OAS: American Convention on Human Rights

US: Nixon nominates Burger to USSC CJ 1969-86

Stonewall (NY)

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

Golda Meir becomes PM of Israel 1969-74

Sino-Soviet conflict

Brandt Chancellor W Ger 1969-1974

1968

Lord Diplock appointed Law Lord (1968-85)

Civil rights marches in NI

Fulton report into Civil Service reform

Madzimbamuto case on parliamentary sovereignty, and conventions (Rhodesian UDI)

Padfield case

Anisminic case

Conway v Rimmer

Electoral Law Act (Northern Ireland)

Irl: People reject change to voting system

Prague Spring

May 68 France

ML King assassinated

Tet offensive; My Lai

Tehran World Conference on Hum Rts

1967

Formation of NI Civil Rights Association

Six Days War

Nyerere and Arusha Declaration of African Socialism

Nigeria – Biafra War

Johnson nominates Thurgood Marshall to USSC

1966

General Election. Wilson becomes PM (Lab)

UKHL Practice Statement on precedent

UN adopts the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights.

USSC: Miranda

National Organization of Woman

ICJ: South West Africa (Liberia v SA) (Tanaka diss)

Foucault’s The Order of Things

Indira Gandhi becomes PM of India 1966-77

Lynch Taoiseach 1966-73

Kiesinger Chancellor W Ger 1966-69

1965

Lemass visits Northern Ireland

UK accepts individual petition to the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)

Rhodesia – Unilateral Declaration of Independence

UN: Race Discrimination Convention

IESC: Ryan

USSC: Grisworld v Connecticut

1964

General Election. Harold Wilson becomes PM (Lab)

Lord Wilberforce appointed Law Lord 1964-82

Burmah Oil Co case

USSC: NY Times v Sullivan

USSC: Reynolds v Sims

IESC: State (Quinn) v Ryan

ECJ decision in Costa v ENEL on supremacy

US: Civil Rights Act

Anti Vietnam War movement US

1963

Douglas-Home becomes PM (Con) (has to renounce his peerage)

Profumo scandal

O’Neill PM of NI 1963-69

Denning Report into Profumo affair

Peerage Act

Ridge v Baldwin

March on Washington

Kenyan independence

Van Gend & Loos decision of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) establishes direct effect

De Gaulle vetoes UK entry to EEC

Aden conflict

Erhad Chancellor of WGer 1963-1966

1962

Sheelagh Murnaghan calls for a Bill of Rights (NI Stormont)

‘Night of the Long Knives’

Chandler v DPP

Fr: Referendum on direct presidential elections

USSC: Engel v Vitale (School Prayer)

Cuban Missile Crisis

Second Vatican Council 1962-5

Sino-Indian War

1961

Lord Devlin appointed Law Lord 1961-64

Hart publishes The Concept of Law

Amnesty Int’l formed

Canadian Bill of Rights

European Social Charter (COE)

Irl: Walsh appointed to IESC 1961-1990; O Dalaigh becomes CJ

Bay of Pigs

Fr: Generals’ Putsch

1960

First ECtHR judgment: O Laighleis / Lawless

Cyprus becomes independent

UN Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples 1960, UN A/RES/1514 (XV)

U-2 shot down by USSR

South Africa: Sharpeville Massacre

Bandaranaike becomes PM of Sri Lanka (first female PM anywhere)

1959

General Election. Macmillan becomes PM (Con)

Devlin Report on policing in Nyasaland

 Tibetan uprisingLemass Toiseach 1959-1966

1958

Life Peerages Act, allowed for female peers

Irl: People reject change to voting system

Algiers Putsch

De Gaulle – last PM of IV Republic

Constitution of the French Fifth Republic

Ger FCC: Luth case

Hart / Fuller Debate in Harvard LR

1957

Eden resigns. MacMillan becomes PM (Con).

Franks Report on Tribunals

Wolfenden Report; Hart Devlin debate

Treaty of Rome creates European Economic Community (EEC)

Little Rock

De Valera 1957-9 Taoiseach

1956

Suez War

 NI Gov  Why the Border must be: The Northern Ireland case in brief

Nasser becomes President of Egypt

Suez War

Hungarian Uprising

Ger FCC: Communist Party case

Eisenhower nominates Brennan to USSC 1956-1990

Battle of Algiers

1955

General Election. Eden becomes PM (Con)

Rosa Parks arrested

Vietnam War 1955?-1975

EOKA campaign Cyprus 1955-59

1954

Crichel Down affair, Dugdale resigns

Viscount Simonds appointed Law Lord 1954-1962

Flags and Emblems (Display) Act (Northern Ireland)

USSC: Brown v Board of Education

Algerian War of Independence 1954-62

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

Costello Taoiseach 1954-7

1953

MacCormick v. Lord Advocate

US and UK overthrow Iranian Prime Minster Mossadeq

Eisenhower nominates Warren to USSC 1953-1969

O Dalaigh appointed to IESC (1953-1974)

1952

Accession of Elizabeth II

Britain tests a nuclear weapon

Ger FCC: Socialist Reich Party case

Mau Mau war (Kenya) 1952-60

Egyptian Revolution

1951

General election. Churchill becomes PM (Con) (though Labour won more votes in the election)

UK ratifies ECHR

Refugee Convention

Treaty of Paris

De Valera Taoiseach 1951-54

1950

General election. Attlee re-elected PM (Lab)

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (COE treaty)

Schumann Declaration

Korean War, 1950-53

ICJ: Genocide convention opinion

1949

Orwell’s 1984

Parliament Act (Bill passed by Parliament Act)

Ireland Act recognises the Irish Republic and guarantees NI’s position within UK

German Basic Law “Grundgesetz”

NATO Treaty

Formation of Council of Europe (COE)

Geneva Conventions

Beauvoir’s Second Sex (French)

Adenauer Chancellor W Ger 1949-1963

1948

Creation of National Health Service

Lord Reid appointed as Law Lord (1948-75)

Berlin Airlift

Malayan emergency 1948-1960

Cold War late 1940s to 1989

UN adopts Universal Declaration on Human Rights

Costello Taoiseach 1948-1951

Ireland describes itself as a Republic

End of UK mandate in Palestine; State of Israel created

Czechoslovakia: coup

India: Constitution

OAS: American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man

Genocide Convention

Skinner’s Walden Two

1947

Crown Proceedings Act

India and Pakistan – partition and independence

Camus’ The Plague

1946

Nationalisation of British Coal, the Railways, the Bank of England

Lord Goddard appointed LCJ 1946-58

National Health Service Act

UKUSA treaty on surveillance

Constitution of the French Fourth Republic (1946-58)

Italian Republic and Constitution

Greek civil war 1946-49

French Indochina War 1946-54

ICJ begins work

Tokyo Court and trials

1945

General election. Attlee becomes PM (Lab)

Orwell’s Animal Farm

Salisbury Convention

Nuremburg Court and Trials

Formation of United Nations

Lauterpacht publishes An International Bill of Rights

Indonesian War of Independence 1945-49

Radbruch renounces pure legal positivism

1944

Denning appointed to High Court

Lord Goddard appointed Law Lord 1944-46

Education Act

Bretton Woods agreements establishes the International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the precursor of the World Bank

USSC: Korematsu

ILO Declaration of Philadelphia

Second Bill of Rights speech

Adorno and Horkheimer: Dialectic of Enlightenment

Hayek’s Road to Serfdom

1943

Brooke PM of NI 1943-63

1942

Duncan v Cammel Laird

Beveridge Report on social security

Camus’ L’Etranger

Neumann’s Behemoth

1941

Liversidge v Anderson

Atlantic Charter

Four Freedoms Speech

1940

Churchill (Con) becomes PM (National government)

Andrews PM of NI 1940-43

Wells publishes The Rights of Man

1939

 Emergency Powers Acts 1939-40Official Secrets ActDefence Regulation 18B

World War 2, 1939-45

Irl: Offences against the State Act

Joyce’s Finnegan’s Wake

1938

USSC: Carolene Products

1937

Chamberlain (Con) becomes PM (National government)

US: Court packing plan

USSC: West Coast Parish

Constitution of Ireland

De Valera Taoiseach 1937-1948

1936

Accession (and abdication) of Edward VIII

Accession of George VI

Abdication Act

Keynes publishes his General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money

Germany occupies Rhineland

1936-39 Spanish civil War

Soviet Union: Constitution

Italy conquers Abyssinia

Irl: Abolition of Senate

LDH: Declaration des droits de l’homme

1935

General election. Baldwin (Con) becomes PM (National government)

Government of India Act

IESC: State (Ryan) v Lennon

PCIJ: Minority Schools in Albania

1934

NCCL formed

Kelsen publishes The Pure Theory of Law (in German)

1933

Hitler appointed Chancellor

Irl: Removal of oath

1932

Huxley’s Brave New World

Vauxhall Estates case

Trethowan case JCPC

 De Valera Pres Exec Council (Ir Free State) 1932-1937

1931

General election. MacDonald (Lab) becomes PM (National Government

Statute of Westminster recognises legislative autonomy of dominions

Second Spanish Republic

1930

JCPC decides Edwards v Canada

1929

General election. MacDonald becomes PM (Lab)

Bondfield becomes first female Minister

Lord Hewart publishes The New Despotism

NI abolishes PR for Stormont elections (consideration given to Royal Veto).

1929-32 Great Depression

1929 Institute of Int’l Law: Declaration of the International Rights of Man

1928

Lord Atkin appointed Law Lord 1928-44

Equal Franchise Act

Kelsen publishes article on ‘La garantie juridictionnelle de la constitution’

PCIJ: Minorities in Upper Silesia

1927

 Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

1926

General Strike

 Emergency Powers Act (Northern Ireland) 1926

1925

Boundary Crisis

Reintroduction of Gold Standard

Roberts v Hopwood

Kafka’s The Trial

1924

Jan: Baldwin loses vote of no confidence.

Jan. MacDonald becomes PM – first Labour Government.

MacDonald loses vote of confidence.

Communist scare; Zinoview letter.

General election (Oct). Baldwin becomes PM 1924-29 (Con)

Ellen Street Estate case

Death of Lenin

1923

May Bonar Law diagnosed with cancer

Baldwin becomes PM May 1923-Jan 1924  (Con)

General election (Dec).

Schmitt publishes The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy (German)

Munich Putsch

Treaty of Lausanne

Republic of Turkey

1922

Lloyd George and sale of honours

General election. Bonar Law becomes PM (Con).

Craig PM of NI 1922-40

Irish Free State (Consequential Provisions) Act 1922,

Irish Free State (Agreement) Act 1922

Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Act (Northern Ireland)

Mussolini comes to power

Irish Free State comes into being; IFS Constitution

Irish Civil War (1922-3)

Schmitt publishes Political Theology (German)

Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ)

Weber’s Economy and Society (German)

WT Cosgrave Pres Exec Council (Ir Free State) 1922-1932

1921

Election for the Parliament of NI; NI Parliament opts out of the Irish Free State

Lord Carson appointed Law Lord 1921-29

Anglo-Irish Treaty

1920

Government of Ireland Act  (Cain version)

AG v De Keyser’s Hotel

Official Secrets Act

Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after WW1 1920-23

Austrian Constitutional Court

Battle of Warsaw

1919

Irish Sinn Fein MPs meet in Dublin; announce Declaration of Independence, Democratic Programme and a Constitution

1919-1921 Anglo-Irish War

Lady Astor – first woman to sit as an MP

Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act

Government of India Act

Treaty of Versailles

League of Nations formed

International Labour Organisation formed

Germany: Weimar constitution

USSC: Abrams

1918

General election. Lloyd George (Lib) becomes PM (Coalition)

Prime ministerial power of dissolution

Markiewicz first woman MP (abstentionist)

Representation of the People Act

Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act

German Revolution

Soviet Union: Declaration of the Rights of Working People and the Exploited

Britain and others intervene in Russian Civil War 1918-20

Joyce’s Ulysses

1917

 Chequers Estate Act

Mexico: constitution

February Revolution, Russia.

October Revolution, Russia.

Russian Civil War 1917-23

1916

Easter Rising in Dublin; Proclamation of the Republic

Dec. Lloyd George (Lib) becomes PM (Coalition).

Dec. Formation of Cabinet Secretariat

Sykes-Picot Agreement

Lenin’s Imperialism

1915

 Asquith forms coalition government (May 1915-Dec 1916)Sinking of Lusitania

Kafka’s Metamorphosis

Gallipoli campaign 1915-16

1914

Curragh Mutiny

Welsh Church Act (Bill passed by Parliament Act)

1914 Suspensory Act

World War 1 1914-18

1913

Lord Sumner appointed Law Lord 1913-30

1912

Ulster Covenant

Home Rule Bill and Crisis (Bill passed by Parliament Act)

1911

Parliament Act

Official Secrets Act

National Insurance Act

1910

Accession of George V

General election – Jan: HH Asquith becomes PM (Lib)

General election – Dec. HH Asquith becomes PM (Lib)

Churchill Home Secretary 1910-11

1909

“People’s Budget” triggers conflict between Commons and Lords

South Africa Act

1908

Asquith becomes PM (Lib). Lloyd George becomes Chancellor of the Exchequer (1908-1915)

Pound publishes ‘Mechanical Jurisprudence’

1907

Married Women’s Property Act

Central American Court of Justice 1907-1917

Swiss Civil Code

1906

General election. Campbell-Bannerman becomes PM (Liberal)

Labour Party born from former Labour Representation Committee

Trade Disputes Act

1905

USSC: Lochner

Einstein publishes papers on physics including relativity

Russia grants a Duma

1904

Angle-French Entente Cordiale

Casement Report

Congo Reform Association

Weber’s Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism begins to appear (German)

1903

1902

Balfour becomes PM (Con).

1901

Accession of Edward VII

Duguit’s The State, Objective Law and Subjective Law (in French).

1900

General election. Salisbury becomes PM (Con). Salisbury was the last PM to be a peer.

Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act

German Civil Code (BGB)

1899

Boer War, 1899-1902

Freud’s Interpretation of Dreams

Permanent Court of Arbitration

1898

Fashoda Incident

1897

Holmes publishes ‘The Path of Law’

Greece permits judicial review of legislation (first European example)

1896

USSC: Plessy v Ferguson

1895

General election. Salisbury becomes PM (Con)

1894

Rosebery becomes PM (Lib)

Dreyfus affair 1894-1906

1893

Second Home Rule Bill

Married Women’s Property Act

New Zealand grants women the right to vote

1892

General election. Gladstone becomes PM (Lib)

1891

 Rerum Novarum  Rights and Duties of Capital and Labour 

1889

 Parnell Commission report

1887

Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals.

1886

Government defeated in Commons by Liberals and Irish Home Rule party: Gladstone becomes PM (Lib)

General election. Salisbury becomes PM (Con).

First Home Rule Bill

1885

General election. Salisbury becomes PM (Con)

Creation of Scottish Office

Dicey’s Law of the Constitution

Redistribution of Seats Act

Berlin Conference  – Scramble for Africa

1884

Representation of the People Act (Third Reform Act)

Order in council prohibits civil servants running for election

1883

USSC: Civil rights Cases

1882

Married Women’s Property Act

1880

General election. Gladstone becomes PM (Lib)

Bolivia: Constitution

1879

USSC: Strauder v W Va

1876

Appellate Jurisdiction Act allows for Lords of Appeal (Law Lords)

1875

French Constitutional Laws

1874

General election. Disraeli becomes PM (Con)

1873

Slave Trade Act

Corrupt and Illegal Practices Preventions Act

Supreme Court of Judicature Acts 1873-5 reform courts

1872

Secret Ballot Act

Jhering publishes The Struggle for Law (German)

1871

Lee v. Bude & Torrington Junction Rly Co

Parisian Commune

French Third Republic 1871-1940

Unification of Germany

1870

Married Women’s Property Act

Elementary Education Act

Franco-Prussian War 1870-71

1869

Irish Church Disestablishment Act

1868

Disraeli becomes PM (Con) (Feb-Dec).

General election (Dec). Gladstone becomes PM (Lib) 1868-74.

Gladstone government begins reform to Civil Service and Army.

Chorlton v. Lings: Reform Acts do not enfranchise women

14th Amendment to the US Constitution – equal protection of the laws, due process, citizenship

1867

Bagehot publishes The English Constitution

Representation of the People Act (Second Reform Act)

British North America Act – Canada born

Morant Bay uprising (Jamaica)

1866

Derby becomes PM (Con) 1866-68.

Prussia and Italy at war with Austria.

1865

General election. Russell becomes PM (Lib)

Colonial Laws Validity Act

US: Thirteenth amdt passes Congress.

1864

Syllabus of errors: Pope condemns liberalism

1863

US: Emancipation Proclamation

1860

Mill publishes Considerations on Representative Government

Plebiscites in parts of Italy favour union with Piedmont. Garibaldi takes Naples. Cavour recalled. Piedmont invades Papal states. First Italian parliament in Turin.

1859

General election. Palmerston becomes PM (Lib)

Whigs become Liberal Party

Mill publishes On Liberty

Darwin’s On the Origin of Species

Revolutions in Tuscany, Modena, Parma. Piedmont Austrian war

1858

Derby becomes PM (Con)

1857

General election. Palmerston becomes PM (Whig)

1856

USSC: Scott v Sanford

1855

Palmerston becomes PM.

1854

1853

Northcote-Trevelyan Report into Civil Service

Crimean War, 1853-6

Argentina: Constitution

1852

Derby becomes PM (Con) Feb-Dec 1852

General election. Derby continues as minority gov. PM

Aberdeen becomes PM (Coalition) 1852-55.

Dickens’ Bleak House

Fr: Constitution (Empire)

1851

Louis Napoleon coup

1848

Young Ireland Rebellion

Revolutions in France and across Europe

French II Republic (1848-51), Constitution

Marx and Engels publish the Communist Manifesto

Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments

1847

General election. Russell becomes PM (Whig)

Liberia: Declaration of Rights

1846

Repeal of Corn Laws.

1845

Irish Famine 1845-9

1844

Marx’s On the Jewish Question

1842

Edinburgh & Dalkleith Railway case, courts must give effect to statutes

1841

General Election. Peel becomes PM (Con)

1838

People’s Charter

1837

Accession of Queen Victoria

General election. Melbourne becomes PM (Whig)

Dickens’ Oliver Twist

1835

General election. Melbourne becomes PM (Whig)

Tories become the Conservative Party

1834

Melbourne becomes PM (Whig) July-Nov 1834. Melbourne was the last PM to be dismissed by the monarch.

Wellington PM Nov-Dec.

Peel becomes PM (Con) Dec 1834-April 1835

Peel’s Tamworth Manifesto

1832

Austin publishes The Province of Jurisprudence Determined

Slavery Abolition Act

1832

General election. Grey becomes PM (Whig)

Great Reform Act

1831

General election. Grey becomes PM (Whig)

Belgium: constitution.

Jamaica Slave Revolt

1830

Accession of William IV

General election, Grey becomes PM (Whig) 1830-34.

Only use of Act of Settlement procedure to remove judge

Greek independence

July Revolution in France

French Charter

1829

Metropolitan Police Act

Roman Catholic Relief Act

1828

Wellington becomes PM (Tory) 1828-1830

1827

Liverpool retires; Canning becomes PM (Tory) April-August.

Goderich becomes PM (Tory) 1827-1828.

1826

General election. Liverpool becomes PM  (Tory)

1824

Slave Trade Act

1821

Mexican War of Independence

1820

Accession of George IV

General Election: Liverpool becomes PM (Tory)

1819

Peterloo Massacre

USSC: McCulloch v Maryland

1818

General Election: Liverpool becomes PM (Tory)

1816

Davy’s Safety Lamp

1815

McAdam’s tarmac

Battle of Waterloo

Congress of Vienna

1814

Norwegian independence

French Charter

1812

Perceval assassinated. Liverpool becomes PM  (Tory)

General Election: Liverpool becomes PM (Tory)

Spanish Constitution (Cadiz)

War of 1812 between UK and US

1811

George III incapacitated; Regency 1811-20

New Orleans Slave Revolt

Austrian Civil Code

1809

Perceval becomes PM (Tory)

1807

General election. Portland becomes PM (Tory)

Slave Trade Act

1806

General election: Grenville becomes PM (Whig)

1805

Battle of Trafalgar

1804

Pitt the Younger becomes PM

Napoleon becomes Emperor

French Constitution (First Empire)

Fr: Civil Code

1803

Napoleonic Wars, 1803-1815

US case of Marbury v. Madison establishes judicial power to overrule legislation

Louisiana Purchase

1802

General election: Addington becomes PM (Tory)

French Constitution

1801

George III’s opposition prevents reform of anti-Catholic laws; Pitt resigns; Addington becomes PM (Tory)

John Marshall appointed USSC CJ 1801-35

1800

Act of Union – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland formed

Act of Union (Ireland)

1799

French Constitution (Consulate)

1798

Rebellion in Ireland

1796

General election.

1795

French Constitution (Directoire) including the Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man and of the Citizen

1794

US: Whisky Tax rebellion

1793

Godwin’s Political Justice. Paine’s Age of Reason.

Louis XVI executed

France: Constitution and  Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

Geneva Declaration of Rights

1792

Wollstonecraft publishes Vindication of the Rights of Woman

Mackintosh publishes Vindiciae Gallicae

First French Republic

French Revolutionary Wars, 1792-1802

1791

Wollstonecraft’s Rights of Men.

Tom Paine publishes his The Rights of Man

US Bill of Rights

Polish Constitution

French Constitution and Penal Code (introduces jury)

De Gouges’ Rights of Women

Haiti Revolt

1790

General election

Burke publishes his Reflections on the Revolution in France

France: Law of 16 and 24 August 1790 prohibit judges exercising legislative powers

1789

French Revolution

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (France)

1787

Constitution of the United States

Publication of the Federalist Papers

1784

General election

1783

Portland PM April to Dec

Pitt the Younger, Prime Minster 1783-1801

1782

Ireland given greater legislative freedom – Grattan’s Parliament

North resigns after a motion of no confidence (first such motion)

Shelburne PM 1782-1783

Repeal of Act for Securing Dependence of Ireland Act

1781

 Tucker’s Treatise on Civil Government

Kant’s Pure Reason.

1780

General election

Massachusetts: Constitution.

1776

Smith publishes his Inquiry into the Wealth of Nations

Paine publishes Common Sense

Price publishes Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty

American Declaration of Independence

Virginia: Declaration of Rights

1775

De Lolme’s Constitution of EnglandJohnson publishes Taxation no Tyranny

American War of Independence 1775-83

1774

General election

1772

Somerset’s case –  slavery illegal in England

Royal Marriages Act

1770

Lord North’s administration 1770-82

1768

General election

Grafton PM 1768-1770.

Encyclopaedia Britannica appears. Arkwright’s spinning frame

Priestley’s Essay on the First Principles of Government

1767

Ferguson’s Essay on the History of Civil Society

1766

Pitt the Elder PM 1766-1768

1765

Rockingham PM 1765-6

Blackstone publishes his Commentaries on the Laws of England

Entick v. Carrington

1763

Grenville PM 1763-5

Watt’s Steam Engine

Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years ar

1762

Bute PM 1762-1763

Rousseau’s Emile and Social Contract published

1761

General election

1760

Accession of George III

1759

Voltaire publishes Candide

1757

Newcastle PM 1757-1762

1756

Devonshire PM 1756-1757

Seven Years War 1756-63

1755

Lisbon Earthquake

1754

General election

Newcastle PM 1754-56

1752

Britain adopts Gregorian Calendar

1751

Encyclopaedia begins to appear

1750

Calendar (New Style) act

1748

 Hume’s Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

Montesquieu publishes the Spirit of the Laws

1747

General election

1745

Rising in Scotland

1744

Hume’s Essays Moral and Political

1743

Pelham PM 1743-1754

1742

Compton PM 1742-1743

1741

General election

1739

Hume’s Treatise on Human Nature

1734

General election

1730

1729

Swift’s Modest Proposal

1727

Accession of George II

General election

1722

General election

1721

Walpole “first Prime Minister”1721(?)- 1742

1720

Dependency of Ireland Act

Swedish revolt confers greater power on Diet.

1719

Defoe’s Education of Women

1716

1715

General election

Jacobite Rising

Septennial Act

1714

Accession of George I

1713

General election.

Treaty of Utrecht – Tories pull out of war against France. Expands UK colonies; British monopoly on sale of slaves to Latin America

Conflict between Louis and Parlement over Bull Unigenitus, condemning Jansenist practices. Parlement insisted on remonstrating though it eventually lost.

1711

Newcomen’s steam engine.

1710

General election

1708

General election

1707

Formation of Parliament of Great Britain

Queen Anne exercises the Royal veto for the last time

Union with England Act

Formation of Parliament of Great Britain

1706

Treaty of Union

Union with Scotland Act

1704

Battle of Blenheim

1702

Accession of Anne

1701

Act of Settlement secures judicial independence in England, determines succession of crown

War of Spanish succession 1701-14

1698

Patterson sponsored Scottish colonists set out to found disastrous New Caledonia.

1697

Banishment Act prohibits Catholic hierarchy in Ireland.

1694

Death of Mary II; William III rules alone

Bank of England.

Triennial Act

1691

End of Jacobite resistance in Ireland

1690

Battle of the Boyne

1689

Locke publishes Essay on Understanding and Two Treatises of Government

Convention Parliament

Holt becomes Lord Chief Justice

Bill of Rights (Eng+ Wales)

Claim of Right (Scotland)

Toleration Act

Crown and Parliament Recognition Act

1688

.Birth of a royal heir.

Glorious Revolution

Accession of William and Mary

Second Declaration of Indulgence

Trial of Seven Bishops.

Nine Year’s War 1688-1697

1687

.Newton publishes Principia.

Prerogative Declaration of Indulgence for Catholics and Dissenters  – permitted Catholics to worship in public.

1686

Godden v Hales upheld dispensing power under prerogative

1685

Death of Charles II. Accession of James II

Failed uprisings by Monmouth and Argyll. ‘Bloody Assizes’

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Expulsion of Huguenot ministers

1681

Bayle’s Commentaire Philosophique argues for toleration of atheists.

1679

Two elections for Parliament

Locke begins work on his Two Treatises?

Habeas Corpus Act

1678

Popish Plot

Second Test Act

1673

Test Act excludes Catholics from public office

Revocation of Declaration of Indulgence

Thomas v Sorrell

 Poulain publishes A Physical and Moral Discourse on the Equality of both Sexes

1672

Third Anglo-Dutch War 1672-4Charles II grants monopoly to Royal Africa Co (slave trade)

Declaration of Indulgence

1670

Treaties of Dover

1667

‘Cabal’ 1667-72

1666

Great fire of London

1665

Hooke’s MicrgraphiaBubonic PlagueSecond Angle-Dutch War 1665-7

1664

Triennial Parliaments’ Act

1662

Act of Uniformity.Irish parliament passes Act of Settlement.English Royal Society.

Boyle’s law formulated

1660

Restoration: Accession of Charles II

House of Lords restored

1658

Death of Cromwell

1657

Petition and Advice

1656

Harrington’s Oceana.

Huygens works on clocks in the UP.

1653

Rump Parliament dissolved.

Barebones Parliament called.

Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell

Instrument of Government – a ‘written’ constitution

1652

First Anglo Dutch War 1652-4.

1651

Hobbes publishes Leviathan

1649

Levellers suppressed.

Trial and execution of Charles I

Milton’s Tenure of Kings and Magistrates

Interregnum / Commonwealth 1649-1660

Abolition of House of Lords

1648

Second Civil War 1648-9

Treaty of Westphalia

1647

Hobbes’ De Cive

Levellers’ Agreement of the People

Putney Debates

1645

New Model Army

Battle of Naseby

1644

1643

Milton’s Areopagicita

1642

Charles attempts to arrest 5 MPs in Parliament

English Civil War 1642-51

Militia Ordinance agreed by Commons and Lords

1641

Rebellion in Ireland

Abolition of Star Chamber

Grand Remonstrance

Triennial Act

Thermometer invented in Italy

1640

Second Bishops’ War in Scotland

Charles summons the ‘Short’ Parliament

Charles summons a second – the ‘Long’ -Parliament

1639

First Bishops’ War in Scotland

1639-51, Wars of the Three Kingdoms

1638

Scottish National Covenant

Descartes’ theory of analytic geometry.

1637

Charles tries to introduce new Prayer Book in Scotland

Case of Ship Money (R v Hampden) upholds use of prerogative to levy Ship Money tax (7-5)

Descartes’ Discourse on Method

1635

Judicial advice on ship money.

1634

Charles raises ship money

Summoning of Irish Parliament

1633

Laud becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

1629

Charles I rules without Parliament 1629-40 – ‘personal rule’.

1628

Buckingham assassinated.

Coke’s Institutes of the Laws of England.

Charles summons his third Parliament

Harvey’s On the Motion of the Heart and Blood

Petition of Right

1627

Charles resorts to a forced loan

La Rochelle expedition

Five Knights’ Case (Darnel’s case), KB

1626

1625

Accession of Charles I

Cadiz expedition

Grotius: Laws of War and Peace

1624

Parliament summoned for last time in James’ reign

Monopolies Act

1621

Parliament summoned for the first time since 1614.

1620

Pilgrim Fathers sail to America on the Mayflower

1618

Buckingham chief minister 1618-28.

Bacon (an enemy of Coke) becomes Lord Chancellor

Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

1616

James I dismisses Coke

1615

Harvey discovers circulation of the blood.

1614

Addled Parliament

1613

Coke moved from Common Pleas to King’s Bench

1611

Case of Proclamations insists Prerogative is delimited by the law

King James Bible published

1610

Dr. Bonham’s case.

France: Henry IV assassinated

Gallileo’s Starry Messenger?

1609

Kepler’s Astronomia Nova

Dutch Spanish Truce of Antwerp – United Provinces recognised as if a sovereign power.

1607

Prohibitons del roy case – King may not act as judge

Virginia colony

1606

Coke becomes Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas

Bate’s case

1605

Bacon’s Advancement of Learning.Gunpowder plot.

Shakespeare’s King Lear.

1604

Treaty of London between England and Spain. Shakespeare’s Othello.

1603

Irish rebellion  defeated

Elizabeth dies.

Accession of James I (James VI Scotland) – a personal union of the monarchs of England and Scotland

1602

Mountjoy subdues the Irish.

1601

Poor Law Act. Spanish land at Kinsale. Essex revolt.

Essex executed

English establish colony in Virginia.

1600

English East India Company founded. Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Barclay’s De Regno et Regali Potestate advocates divine right of kings.

1598

James VI of Scotland publishes the True Law of Free Monarchies

France: Edict of Nantes

1594

O’Neill’s revolt. Edward Coke becomes Attorney General.

1592

Trinity College Dublin. Shakespeare’s Richard III, Comedy of Errors.

1588

Spanish Armada

1584

Heydon’s case

1582

Gregorian calendar

1581

Drake circumnavigates the globe.

1576

Bodin publishes Six Books of the Republic advocating sovereignty, distinguishing it from family authority.

1572

St. Bartholomew Massacre of Huguenots.

1571

Battle of Lepanto

1560

Act of Supremacy (Ireland)

1558

Elizabeth I r. 1558-1603. Knox’s Monstrous Regiment.

Loss of Calais.

Act of Supremacy

1555

Peace of Augsburg – cuius regio, cuius religio,

1553

Edward dies. Lady Jane. Rebellion installs

Mary I 1553-8. Parliament reverses Edwardian ecclesiastical laws.

1547

Edward VI r. 1547-53

1545

Council of Trent 1545-63

1543

Copernicus’ theory De revolutionibus

1542

Crown of Ireland Act (Ireland)

Law in Wales Act

1535

Execution of More

Law in Wales Acts 1535-42

Conquest of the Incas.

Mendoza appointed viceroy of New Spain.

1534

Act of Supremacy – Henry VIII becomes Head of the church

Rabelais Gargantua.

1532

Machiavelli’s Prince printed.

1529

More LC 1529-32

1526

Act for the Dissolution of the Monasteries; Statute allows Henry to leave the crown by will

1525

Tyndale translates Bible.

1520

Cortes conquers Mexico. Magellan circumnavigates South America.Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent

1519

Magellan and Del Cano set out.

Cortes begins conquest of Aztecs.

1517

Martin Luther’s Theses.

1516

More publishes Utopia

1515

Wolsey becomes Lord Chancellor

1513

Macchiavelli writes The Prince

1510

Martin Luther visits Rome.

1509

Henry VIII r 1509-1547

1495

Poyning’s Law (Ireland)

1486

Pico’s Dignity of Man

1485

Battle of Bosworth Field, Richard dies in battle. Henry VII (Tudor) takes power 1485 – 1509.

1475

Caxton’s printing press

1455

War of the Roses, 1455-87

1431

Jeanne burned.

1429

Battle of Orleans

1413

Death of Henry IV. Henry V r. 1413-22. Henry V asserts right to French throne.

1400

Pro-Richard rising crushed, Richard II killed.

Welsh rebellion 1400-1414.

Death of Chaucer

1399

Failed excursion to Ireland. Richard II prisoner. Henry IV, Duke of Lancaster, seizes power (r. 1399-1413).

1381

Peasants’ Revolt. Wat Tyler killed.

1378

1378-82 popular revolts.

1378-1417 Great Schism.

1340

Chaucer 1340-1400.

1337

Hundred Years War, 1337-1453

1327

Edward II forced to abdicate. Murder of Edward II.

Edward III (r. 1327-1377).

1320

Declaration of Arbroath

1324

Marsilius’ Defensor Pacis

1313

1310-1313 – Dante’s Monarchia promotes universal monarchy?

1307

Edward II (r. 1307-1327)

1302

First Etats Generalcalled.

Boniface’s Unum Sanctam

1297

Confirmation of Charters. No taxation without representation.

1295

Edward I summons Model Parliament

1283

Coutumes de Beauvaisis of  Beaumanoir.

1265

Aquinas’ On Princely Government.

1260

First translation of Aristotle’s Politics, with its idea of the common good, citizenship, and the naturalness of the state, by William of Moerbeke.

1256

Las sietes partidas written 1256-63.

1240

Herman the German translates Aristotle’s Ethics, Rhetoric and Poetics.

1220

Bracton writes Of the Laws and customs of England (date uncertain)

1216

Henry III (r. 1216-1272)

1215

Magna Carta

Fourth Lateran Council

1214

John loses Normandy.

1213

Innocent III forces King John to do feudal homage.

1212

Children’s Crusade

1209

Massacre of Albigensians

1202

Fourth Crusade

1199

King John 1199-1216.

1189

Richard  (r. 1189-1199)

1187

Chief Justiciar Glanville’s Treatise on the Laws of England.

Third Crusade

1182

St Francis 1182-1226

1170

Beckett killed

1166

Assizes of Clarendon

1164

Constitutions of Clarendon

1155

Pope grants Ireland to Henry II.

1154

Henry II (r. 1154-1189).

1147

Second Crusade

1140

Gratian produced the Decretum in Bologna.

1126

Averroes 1126-1198

1100

Charter of Liberties

1096

First Crusade

1088

Domesday Book.

1066

Edward dies. Harold. Battle with Danes. Battle of Hastings. William has papal support.

1054

Schism between Eastern and Western Church

1042

End of Danish rule in England. King Edward the Confessor (1042-66).

1013

Danish rule in England. St. Olaf converted.

980

Avicenna 980-1037

871

Alfred becomes king of Wessex and defeats Danes.

817

Louis le Pieux – division of the empire

802

Capitulary of Charlemagne

800

Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Emperor. Holy Roman Empire

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