Chronology of events pre – 800

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Date Greece and Eastern Roman Empire Rome / Italy Elsewhere
795   Pope Leo III 795-816. First Viking attack on Ireland.
794     Western bishops modify the Creed outraging the East.
793     First Viking attack on England.
789      
787   Seventh Council on Iconoclasm. Council of Niceae.  
786     Caliphate of Harun-al-Rashid

r. 786?-809, translation of Greek works into Arabic

782   Alcuin at Aachen Franks massacre Saxons into Christianity.
774   Charlemagne conquers Lombard territory of Italy.  
772   Pope Adrian I 772-795.  
771     Charlemagne unites the lands of Pepin.
768     Charlemagne begins to rule (until 814).
756   Pepin defeats the Lombards.  
754   Stephen II anoints Pepin and asks for help. Death of St. Boniface. Stephen II anoints Pepin and asks for help. Death of St. Boniface.
753   Stephen II crosses Alps. Stephen II crosses Alps.
752   Donation of Constantine forged? Pope described as universal vicar and supreme temporal lord  
751   Lombards seize Ravenna. Pepin le Bref becomes King of the Franks, after asking Patriarch Zacharias who should rule.
750   Lombard king Aistulf.  
745   Rachis publishes more Lombard edicts.  
743      
740 Leo III formally replaces Justinian’s laws.    
735      
732      
731   One of Liutprand’s edicts refers to “per pugnam sine iustitia” (Bellomo 50). Gregory III pope (731-41).  
717 Second Arab siege of Constantinople.    
715   Pope Gregory II 715- 731.  
713   Lombard Liutprand begins publishing edicts (from 713-735).  
712     Lex Alamannorum adopted sometime between 712 and 725 in Germanic lands.
711     Arab invasions of Spain.
700 Beowulf composed in 8th century   Muslims conquer Carthage.
691     Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem.
681      
680 Third Ecumenical Council of Constantinople.    
678 Constantinople survives Arab siege.    
674      
672     Venerable Bede 672-735.
668   Lombard Grimoald publishes another redaction.  
664     Synod of Whitby prefers Roman to Celtic church.

Muslim forces enter India.

654      
652   Arabs invade Sicily.  
643   Lombard King Rothari publishes an Edictum.  
641     End of the Library at Alexandria.
636      
632     Death of Mohammed.
622     Mohammed’s hegira from Mecca
604   Gregory the Great dies.  
596     Gregory dispatches Augustine (Canterbury) to England.
590   Gregory the Great becomes Pope. 590-604.  
584      
583      
580 Maximus the Confessor 580-662.    
570     Birth of Mohammed.
568   Lombard invasions of Italy.  
565 Death of Justinian.    
563      
560      
554   Byzantine armies invade Italy – reunited to the East.

Introduced Justinian’s laws.

 
542   Death of St. Benedict.  
540   Gregory I (540-604).  
538 Justinian’s Novels?    
534 The Codex, and the Institutions?.    
533 The Digests.?    
532 Initial Codex.?    
529 Justinian closes the Academy. Council of Orange confirms Augustine against Pelagian heresy.  
527 Justinian comes to power.    
524   Theodoric kills Boethius. Cassiodorus founds a monastery at Vivarium  
520   St. Benedict founds Monte Cassino.  
511     Death of Clovis. Lex Salica.
506     Alaric, Visigothic Spain, promulgates a “law” – lex romana visigothorum (Bellomo, 36).
501      
500     Clovis becomes Christian?
494   Pope Gelasius I announces the theory of the two authorities.  
492   Gelasius I (492-6).  
476   Romulus Augustus – last Roman emperor. Deposed by Odoacer.  
470   Boethius 470-524. Author of On the Consolations of Philosophy.  
466      
461     Death of St. Patrick.
453     Death of Attila.
452   Pope Leo I persuades Attila not to pursue his attacks.  
451      
444      
440   Leo I Pope (440-461)  
438 Codex of Theodosius II.    
430     Augustine (of Hippo) dies.
413     Augustine (of Hippo) writes City of God 413-426
410   Sack of Rome by Alaric the Goth.  
397   St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, dies.  
392 Last Olympic Games.    
378 Theodosius (r 378-395)    
354     Augustine (of Hippo) born.
340   Ambrose born.  
337 End of Constantine.    
334      
325   First Council of Nicaea.  
306 Constantine becomes Emperor.    
305   Diocletian abdicates.  
300     Lactantius regards the state as a necessary evil
284   Diocletian comes to power.  
254   Death of Origen.  
215   Ulpian  
200   Ulpian asserts that the emperor is above the law. Death of Irenaeus.  
185   Birth of Origen  
180   Death of Marcus Aurelius. Death of Gaius? Birth of Irenaeus?  
131   Galen 131-201.  
130   Birth of Gaius?  
121   Birth of Marcus Aurelius  
33     Death of Jesus Christ?
0 Dates below are BCE/BC (indicated by italics)    
5     Birth of Jesus Christ?
27   Octavian named Augustus.  
30   Death of Anthony and Cleopatra.  
43   Second Triumvirate until 31. Death of Cicero.  
44   Death of Caesar.  
49   Dictatorship of Caesar.  
50   End of first triumvirate.  
60   First triumvirate until 50.  
63   Catiline conspiracy  
79   End of Sulla’s dictatorship.  
82   Dictatorship of Sulla.  
106   Birth of Cicero.  
146 Romans sack Corinth.    
155   Athenian philosophers visit Rome, promote closer links.  
196 Rome defeats Macedonia at Cynoscephalae.    
212   Rome conquers Syracuse and Sicily. Death of Archimedes.  
264 Death of Zeno (stoicism) (or 263/2).    
266   End of Pyrrhic wars – Rome occupies Greece.  
270 Death of Epicurius.    
287   Birth of Archimedes.  
300 Euclides (author of Elements) flourishes at Alexandria.    
321 Or 322? Aristotle dies a natural death.    
322 Alexander dies (or 323?), Athens revolts. Aristotle’s position tenuous and flees. Macedonians occupy Athens.    
323 Death of Diogenes the Cynic.    
333 Birth of Zeno (stoic).    
334 Alexander invades Persia.    
335 Aristotle returns to Athens after 13 years. Establishes the Lyceum.    
336 Philip murdered. Alexander becomes king.    
338 Philip defeats Athens and Thebes.    
341 Birth of Epicurius.    
343 Philip invites Aristotle to teach his 13 year old son, Alexander.

Persian king kills Hermias.

   
347 Death of Plato. Philip devastates Stagira, Aristotle’s birthplace. Aristotle’s rival becomes leader of the Academy. Aristotle leaves Athens and travels to Assos where Hermias sought to be a philosopher king.    
350 Aristotle’s Ethics?Aristotle’s Politics?    
351 Demosthenes’ first philippic.    
353 Dion – Plato’s friend – murdered.    
355 Birth of Zenon the Stoic.    
357 Dion ousts Dionysius the Younger. Death of Hippocrates.    
359 Philip becomes the Macedonian king.    
360 Plato again becomes entangled with Dionysius the Younger. Plato’s The Republic? The Laws?    
361 Death of Democritus.    
362 Thebes defeats Sparta at the Battle of Mantinea.    
367 Plato at Syracuse again. Attempted to train Dionysius the Younger.    
368 Aristotle sets out for Athens and the Academy?    
371 Thebes defeats Sparta at Leuctra.    
378 Thebes and Athens align against Sparta.    
380 Plato establishes the Academy – the first university?    
384 Birth of Aristotle in Macedonia?    
387   Gauls sack Rome.  
389 Plato goes to Sicily (Syracuse), befriends Dion.    
390   Celts sack Rome.  
399 Death of Socrates    
403 Democracy restored in Athens.    
404 End of the Second Peloponnesian War. Athens surrenders to Sparta. Tyranny of the Thirty. Socrates refuses to order an illegal arrest of Leon. Oligarchic revolution in Athens (Critias). Carthage besieges Syracuse.  
405 406? Socrates refuses to vote against nine generals, on constitutional grounds.    
407 Plato meets Socrates?    
411 Oligarchic revolution in Athens (Alcivb?iades).    
412 Birth of Diogenes the Cynic.    
414   Athens besieges Syracuse.  
427 Birth of Plato    
428 Death of Anaxagoras.    
429 Death of Pericles.    
431 Second Peloponnesian War until 404. The main period of conflicts were 431-421 and 414-404. (Roberts, 33)    
433 Death of Empedocles (elements divided into fire, air, earth, water).    
442 Sophocles’ Antigone?    
450 Aristophanes (comedian) born. Roman delegation visits Greece to study Solōn’s laws.

Twelve Tables

Gautama (Buddha) flourished
457 First Athens Sparta conflict.    
460 Democritus born – atomist theory. Hippocrates born. Anaxogoras begins teaching in Athens.    
461 First Peloponnesian War, until 446.    
479 Greeks defeat Persia in the second war. Battle of Plataea.  The classical age begins.   Death of Confucius
480 Birth of Socrates. Battle of Salamis.    
490 Battle of Marathon – Persia defeated.    
492 First Persian war.    
495 Birth of Pericles.    
497 Death of Pythagoras ??.    
500 Heraclitus flourishes at Ephesus. Birth of Anaxagoras.    
507 Cleisthenes reforms.    
509   Expulsion of the monarch Tarquin.  
510 Sparta drives out Peisistratos.    
530   Pythagoras in Syracuse.  
539     Cylinder of Cyrus?
546 Death of Thales    
560 Psistratus and his sons govern through manipulation in Athens until 510??.   Cyrus ruler of Persia 560-529?
572 Birth of Pythagoras.??    
594 Solōn ruler of Athens?    
600 ?Thales ponders the nature of the natural world, as does Anaximander, both in Miletus.   Greeks found Marseille.
612     Nineveh destroyed.
636 Birth of Thales?    
638 Birth of Solōn?    
700 ? Homer’s works take final form between now and 600 – possibly influenced by Assyrian epics?    
733   Greek colony at Syracuse?  
753   Founding of Rome?  
776 Pan-hellenic games.    
1068 Codrus last king of Athens.    
1200-1000? Iron age begins????    
1200 Disasters at Mycenae – dark ages for 300 years.    
1772     Code of Hammurabi ??
2500      

 

 

 

 

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